How Does Photosynthesis Work?

How Does Photosynthesis Work?

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Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into the monosaccharide glucose. The energy to produce sugar causes chemical reactions that break down carbon dioxide and water molecules and rearrange them to form sugar (glucose) and oxygen. Due to the energy of the light wave, six carbon dioxide molecules and six water molecules (reagents) are converted into one sugar molecule (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) and six oxygen molecules. 

During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. During photosynthesis, cells use carbon dioxide and solar energy to produce sugar and oxygen molecules. Cells then use oxygen and glucose during respiration to synthesize energy-rich carrier molecules such as ATP, with carbon dioxide as a by-product.

Oxygen photosynthesis acts as a counterbalance to respiration by absorbing the carbon dioxide produced by all respiratory organisms and reintroducing oxygen into the atmosphere. By absorbing water (H2O) through their roots, carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air, and light energy from the sun, plants can carry out photosynthesis to produce glucose (sugar) and oxygen (O2).

Plants, algae and some bacteria use photosynthesis to convert sunlight, water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and energy in the form of sugars. The process of photosynthesis is the only biological agent on Earth that captures sunlight, converting it into sugars and carbohydrates that provide nutrients to plants by releasing oxygen. Photosynthesis is the only biological process that captures energy from space (sunlight) and converts it into compounds (carbohydrates) that every organism can use to boost its metabolism. Once photosynthesis is complete, it releases oxygen and produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P), a simple (high-energy) carbohydrate molecule that can then be converted into glucose, sucrose, or dozens of other sugar molecules of any kind. 

The chemical energy stored in carbohydrate molecules, such as sugars, that are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water—hence the name photosynthesis, from the Greek phos (phos), “light,” and sunthesis (sun), “bringing together.” ''. Respiration occurs inside the cell when the sugars produced during photosynthesis combine with oxygen to produce energy for the cell, producing carbon dioxide and water as by-products of respiration. Each sugar molecule created contains a portion of the sugar production energy that the plant can use or store for later use. Then, in a light-independent reaction (the Calvin cycle), energy-carrying ATP molecules are used to produce glucose, an energy source.  

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